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Brass and Glass: Optical Instruments and their Makers

By Tony Benson

Draft Table of Contents

(Subject to change prior to release of book)

About The Author
Also By Tony Benson
Acknowledgements
Forward
How To Use This Book
What this book is
What this book is not
Disclaimer
Viewing the sun - WARNING
Differentiating names
A Note on I and J
The London Guilds
Illustrations
Omissions and Inaccuracies
Further Reading
Reviews
Navigating This Book

A

Abbe Apertometer
Abbe, Ernst
Abbe-König Prism
Abbe Refractometer
Abbe Spherometer
Aberrations, Optical
Abney Clinometer (Abney Level)
Abraham, Abraham
Abraham & Dancer
Abraham, Robert
Achromat, Achromatic
Acme Optical Works
Acuter
Adams & Co., A.
Adams, George (I)
Adams, George (II)
Adams, Dudley
Adams, Nathaniel
Adams & Co., R.T.
Adie and Son
Adie, Alexander James
Adie, John
Adie, Patrick
Adie, Richard
Adie and Wedderburn
ADOX Kamerawerk GmbH
AE Optics
Aerial Telescope
Aeronautical & General Instruments Ltd., (AGI)
Aeroscope
AGC
AGFA
Agilux Ltd.
A.I.C. Phototechnik GmbH
Ainsworth & Son, William
Aitchison and Co.
AJACK
Ajax
Akron
Aktien-Gesellschaft für Anilin-Fabrikation (AGFA)
Alderblick
Aldis Bros.
Aldis Optical Level
Aldis Spherometer
Alhazen (Al-Hassan Ibn al-Haytham)
Alidade
Alinari
Allan, James (I)
Allan, James (II)
Alldridge Ltd., R.S.
Allied Impex Corporation
Alment, John
Almucantar, Almacantar
Alpa
Alpen Optics
Altiscope
Altitude-Azimuth (Alt-Az) Telescope Mount
Alt, Robert
Amadio, Joseph Philip
Amalgamated Photographic Equipment Manufacturers Ltd. (APEM)
Amalgamated Photographic Manufacturers Ltd. (APM)
Ambrotype
American Camera Co., The
American Optical Company
Amici, Giovani Battista
Amici Roof Prism
Anamorphic Lens
Anastigmat, Anastigmatic
Anderson, Henry
Anderson and Sons, H.
Angle Mirror
Angular Aperture
Angular Resolution
Angus, Herbert Francis
Anra Manufacturing Engineers
Ansco
Apertometer
Aperture Stop
Aplanat, Aplanatic
APEM
APL
APM
Apochromat, Apochromatic
Apollo Labs; Apollo Business and Industry (APL)
Apomecometer
Apps, Alfred
Aquatic Microscope
Arax
Archbutt, J.&W.E.
Archer, Frederick Scott
Argus
Armstrong, Thomas & Brother Ltd.
Arnold & Richter Cine Technik
Aronsberg
ARRI
Arsat
Arsenal Factory
Asahi Optical Company
Ashmore, William
Ashmore & Osborne
Askania Werke AG
Astigmatism
Astrola
Astrolabe
Astro-Mechanik
Astronomical Equipment
Astronomical Interferometer
Astronomik
Astro Optical Industries Co. Ltd.
Astro-Optische Werkstaetten Georg Tremel
Astroscope
Astroscopics
AstroSystems Ltd.
ATIK Cameras
Atkey & Sons, Pascall
Auriscope
Automatic Level; Auto Level
Avimo
Avizard, René and Charles
Ayscough, James
Ayscough, Martha

B

Baader, Michael
Baader Planetarium
Back-staff
Bailey, Henry Page
Bailey, John William
Baird, Alfred W.
Baird, Andrew H.
Baird & Sons, T.
Baird, Thomas
Baird & Tatlock
Baigish
Baker, Charles
Balbreck, Maximilien
Balda
Bamberg, Johann Karl William Anton
Bancks, Robert
Bancks & Son
Banks, William
Barbier, Bénard, et Turenne (BBT)
Bardou
Bardou & Son
Barker and Co., John
Barlow Lens
Barnet Ensign
Barnet Ensign Ross
Barnett, Thomas
Barr, Archibald
Barr and Stroud
Barrow, Henry
Barrow & Co., Henry
Barton, John Henry
Barton Linnard Ltd.
Baserga, Alfred Jean François
Bass, George
Basset & Gowin
Bate, Robert Brettel
Baumann & Co., Alfred
Bausch & Lomb
BBT Krauss
B.C. & Co.
Beale, John
Beck Apertometer
Beck & Söhne, Christoph (CBS)
Beck, Conrad
Beck, Richard
Beck, R.&J.
Beck, Joseph
Becker & Co., F.E.
Beier; Beirette
Beilby, Richard and Charles
Beilby, Thomas
Belca
Bell and Howell
Bell and Howell Gaumont
Bellingham and Stanley
Beltex Optics
Bencini
Bénèche, Charles Louis
Bénèche & Wasserlein
Bennett, John
Bennett, Thomas
Benoist Berthiot
Berge, Matthew
Berger, C.L.
Berry & Mackay
Bertele, Ludwig Jakob
Berthiot, Claude
Berthiot, Louis
Bertram, Ernst & Wilhelm
Bézu, Hausser, and Company
Bidstrup, Jesper
Billcliff Camera Works
Bilora
Binocular
Binoculars
Binocular Microscope
Binocular Telescope
Biolam
Bio-Pleograph
Bioscop (Bioskop)
Bioscope
Bird, John
Bird-Jones Telescope
Birefringence
Bithray & Steane
Bithray, Stephen
Bithray, William
Blackie, William
Blair & Co., H.G.
Blair Camera Co.
Blachford & Imray
Blazed Grating
Bleuler, John
Blunt, E.
Blunt, E.&G.W.
Blunt, Thomas
Boecker, W. Emil
Bogopolsky, Jacques
Bolex
Bollemeijer & Brans
Boller & Chivens
Bolsey
Bontemps, Georges
Borda Repeating Circle
Boston Camera Co.
Boston Optical Works
Bottomley, James Thomson
Box Camera
Boyle, Charles B.
Brachymedial Telescope
Brachyte
Bradford, George
Braham, John
Brandt Lens Works, R.E.
Brashear Co. Ltd., John A.
Braun AG
Braun Camera-Werk, Carl
Bray, Max
Breithaupt
Bresser
Brewster, Sir David
Brightness, Image
Brimfield and Co., J.
Briois, A.
Britannia Works Company
Britannic
Britex
British Acoustic Films
British Crown Glass Co.
British Optical Instrument Manufacturers' Association (BOIMA)
British Optical Lens Company (BOLCo)
British Optical and Precision Engineers
British Photographic Industries Ltd.
Broadhurst, Clarkson and Co.
Brooks, Alfred
Brown, James
Brown and Co., Neville
Browne & Son, Henry
Brownell, Frank A.
Brownie Camera
Browning & Co., John
Browning, John (I)
Browning, John (II)
Browning, John (III)
Browning, Richard
Browning, Samuel
Browning, Samuel John
Browning, William
Brownscope
Bruce, William
Bruce and Son, Wilson and Gillie
Brunner Frères
Brunner, Johann Josef (Jean)
Brunnings
Brunson
Brunton Outdoor
Bryson, James Mackay
Btee Fr. & Etr.
Buff and Berger
Buff & Buff
Buff, George Louis
Builder’s Level
Bulloch, Walter H.
Bunders, Jan
Bunsen's Photometer
Bunsen's Mirror Photometer
Burlini, Biagio
Burnet & Son, W.
Burrow, W.&J.
Burton, Charles Edward
Burton, Edward
Burton, George
Burton, Mark
Busch, Emil
Bushnell
Butcher & Sons, W.
Butterfield, Michael
Butyro Refractometer
Byers Co.
Byrne, John

C

Cachoix, Robert Algae
Cahill, Patrick
Cail, John
Cail, J.&S.A.
Cail, Septimus Anthony
Calotype
Calver, George
Camera
Camera-Lucida
Camera-Obscura
Cambridge Instrument Company Ltd.
Cambridge Optronics Ltd.
Cambridge Scientific Instrument Co. Ltd.
Campana, Guiseppe
Campani, Guiseppe
Campbell-Stokes Recorder
Carena
Carlaw, David
Carpenter, Philip
Carpenter & Westley
Carpentier, Jules
Carroll, George A.
Carton Optical Industries Ltd.
Carton Optical Canada Inc. (Valley Microscope)
Cary, George
Cary, John (I)
Cary, John (II)
Cary, William
Casartelli
Cassegrain Telescope
Casella, Charles Frederic
Casella, Louis Marino
Casella, Louis Pascal
Catadioptric Telescope
Catoptric
Cave Optical Co.
CDGM
Celestron
Chadburn
Chadwick, William Isaac
Chamberlain, James Bradley
Chamberlain & Son
Chance Brothers and Co.
Chance-Pilkington Optical Works
Chandler, Seth Carlo
Chapman & Alldridge
Chérubin
Cheshire Apertometer
Cheshire Collimator
Cheshire, Frederic J.
Cheshire Optical Instrument Co.
Chevalier, Paris
Chevallier, Jean Gabriel Augustin
Chevallier, Marie Louise Mélanie
Chevallier, Pierre Marcel Augustin
Chinon
Choisy-le-Roi Glass-Works
Chrétien, Henri Jacques
Christie, Andrew
Christie & Wilson
Chromatic Aberration
Chronodeik
Chronophotography, Chronophotographic Gun
Cine
Cinematograph
Cintel
Clacey, John
Clark & Sons, Alvan
Clarke, Edward
Clarke, William
Clarkson, Alexander
Claudet, Antoine François Jean
Claudet and Houghton
Clavé
Clement Clarke
Clinometer
CMF
Cock, Christopher
Coddington Lens
Coelostat
Cohen, S.P.
Cole, Benjamin (I)
Cole, Benjamin (II)
Cole, Humfrey
Collimation, Collimate
Collimator; Collimated
Collins, Charles
Collodion Process
Colmont Paris
Colonial Optical Company
Colposcope
Coma
Coma Corrector
Commodore
Comptoir Général de Photographie
Concave Diffraction Grating
Concave Grating Spectrograph
Condenser Lens
Conrady, Alexander Eugen
Constantine, Pickering & Co.
Contax
Contessa Camera-werke Drexler & Nagel
Contessa-Nettel
Cooke Optics Ltd.
Cooke’s Reversible Level
Cooke, Thomas
Cooke and Sons, Thomas
Cooke Troughton and Simms
Coppock, Charles
Coppock, James T.
Corfield, K.G.
Corner Cube Prism
Corning
Coronet Camera Co.; Coronet Ltd.
Correction Collar (Microscope Objective)
Cosina
Coudé System
Coulter Optical Co.
Cowley Level
Cox & Coombes
Cox, Frederick James
Cox, Hargreaves & Thomson
Cox, H.W.&L.A.
Cox, John
Cox & Son, J.
Cox, William Charles
Craig, Henry W.
Craig Microscope
Cripps, J
Criterion Mfg., Inc.
Crouch, Henry
Crouch, H.&W.
Crown Glass
Crown Optical Company
Cubic Precision
Cuff, John
Culpeper, Edmund
Curry & Paxton
Cushing’s Level
Cuthbert, John
Cutts, J.P., (Cutts, I.P.)

D

Dach Prism
Dacora
Daguerre, Louis
Daguerreotype
Daiichi Kōgaku
Dale, H.&E.J.
Dall, Horace E.S.
Dall-Kirkham Cassegrain Telescope
Dallaway, Joseph James
Dallmeyer, J.H. Ltd.
Dalton, Charles X.
Dancer, John Benjamin
Danjon Prismatic Astrolabe
Dark Field Microscopy
David White Company
Davidson & Co., F.
Davidson, Thomas
Davis
Davis’s Quadrant
Day, Francis
Daystar Filters
Deijl, Harmanus van
Deijl, Jan van
Delacroix
Deleuil, Louis Joseph
Dennert & Pape
Dennis, John Charles
Depression Rangefinder
Derby Crown Glass Company
Deregni (De Regni), Angelo
Desiccator Pump
Deutsche Spiegelglas AG
De Vere (Kensington) Ltd.; De Vere Ltd.
Diagonal
Dial Sight
Dialyte Lens
Diaphanometer
Diatom Prism
Dickson, William
Didbin's Hand Photometer
Dienstglas
Diffraction Grating
DIN
Dioptra; Diopter; Dioptre
Dioptre
Dipping Refractometer
Director
Direct Vision Prism
Direct Vision Spectroscope
Dispersion
Distortion
Dividing Engine
Divini, Eustachio
Dixey, Charles Wastell
Dixey & Son, C.W.
Dixey, Edward
Dixey, George
Dixey, George & Charles
Dobbie & Son, Alexander
Dobbie McInnes Ltd.
Dobson, John
Dobsonian Telescope (Mount)
Docktree, Walter
Dolci Brothers
Dollond & Co.
Dollond and Aitchison
Double Image Prism
Doublet
Dove Prism
Drew, Peter
Drexler & Nagel
Drum Microscope
Duboscq, Louis Jules
Duboscq & Pellin
Ducati
Ducray-Chevallier, Alexandre Victor
Dufay Chromex Ltd.; Dufay Ltd.
Dumaige, M.
Dumpy Level
Dunbar-Scott Auxiliary Top and Side Telescope
Duncker, Johann Heinrich August
Dynameter

E

Eagle Optics
Ealing Corporation; Ealing Catalog
Eastman Dry Plate Company
Eastman, George
Eastman Kodak Company
Ebeling, Fritz
Echelette Grating (Blazed Grating)
Echelle grating
Echelon Grating
Echelon Spectroscope
Ecole Supérieure de Optique
Edgecomb, William C
Edison, Thomas Alva
Edixa
Edmund Optics
Edu Science
Ehrenreich Photo Optical Industries
Eichens, Freidrich Wilhelm
Eikow Optics
Electrotachyscope
Elliott, Edwin
Elliott Brothers
Elliott & Sons
Elliot & Sons, William
Elliott, William
Ellis Aquatic Microscope
Emmerich Optical Company, John H.
Empire Made
Enbeeco
Endacott Scientific Instrument Co.
Endoscope
Engineer Chevallier
Engiscope
Enhelion Ltd.
Ensign Ltd.
Entrance Pupil
Epidiascope, Episcope
Épry, Charles
Equatorial Mount
Erecting Prism
Erfle, Heinrich Valentin
Ernemann
Ertel & Sohn
Ertel, Traugott Leberecht von
Établissements Lacour Berthiot S.A.
Etalon
Eumig
Evans, Thomas J.
Everest Theodolite
Evershed Spectroscope
Exakta
Exit Pupil
Explore Scientific
Extinction Wedge
Eyepiece
Eye Relief

F

Fabry, Charles
Fabry-Perot Interferometer
Factory of Optical and Precision Devices H. Kolberg & Co
Fairbone, Charles (I)
Fairbone, Charles (II)
Fallowfield, Jonathan
Fantascope
Fasoldt, Charles
Fata Morgana
Fauth, Camill
Fauth & Co.
Fecker, Gottlieb L.
Fecker, James Walter
Fecker Inc., J.W.
FED
Feil, Charles; Feil & Co.
Feinmess Dresden GmbH
Ferrania
Ferrotype
Ferson, Fred B.
Féry Refractometer
Féry Spectrograph
FIAMMA
Field Curvature
Field Flattener
Field, John
Field Lens
Field, Robert
Field & Co., R.
Field, Robert & Son
Field Stop
Field, W.E.
Filma
Filotecnica, La
Filotecnica Salmoiraghi
Finder Scope
Fire Damp Photometer
Fisher, Samuel
Fitz, Henry
Fitz, Henry Giles
Fizeau, Armand Hippolyte Louis
Flatters & Garnett Ltd.
Flavelle Brothers and Roberts
Flicker Photometer
Flint Glass
Foca
Focal
Focal Plane
Focal Reducer
Focostat Lens
Folded Optics Microscope
Folding Binoculars
Folding Camera
Folmer & Schwing
Forster, J.
FOS Limited Partnership Society Ginsberg and Co
Foton
Foucault, Jean Bernard Léon
Foucault Siderostat
Foul Anchor
Fournier, G.
Français, E.
Frank Ltd., Charles
Franka
Franke and Heidecke
Franklin-Adams, John
Franks, Abraham
Franks, Aubrey
Fraser, Alexander
Fraser and Son, William
Fraser, William
Fratelli Dolci
Fratelli Koristka
Fraunhofer, Joseph Ritter von
Freiberger
Fresnel, Augustin Jean
Fresnel Double Mirror
Fresnel Double Prism
Fresnel Lantern
Fresnel Lens
Fresnel Prism
Frezzolini, James
Fritsch, Karl
Fromme Brothers
Fuess, Rudolf
Fujifilm
Fujinon
Fuji Surveying Instrument Company Ltd.
Fullerscopes - Dudley Fuller

G

Gabory, Edmund
Gaertner Scientific Corporation
Gaertner, William
Gailand Optical Co.
Gajdušek-Kozelský
Gajdušek, Vilém
Galilean Telescope
Galilei, Galileo
Galileo
Gall & Lembke
Gambey, Henry Prudence
Gandolfi & Sons, Louis
Gardam and Sons, William
Gardiner, James Blake
Gardner, Henry
Gardner, John
Gardner and Co.
Gardner & Co., M.
Gardner & Lyle
Gardner & Neill
Gardner, Thomas R.
Gardner, William
Gargory, James
Garland, John
Gaumont Léon
Gaumont & Co., L.
Gaumont British Picture Corporation
Gaumont Kalee
Gauss, Karl Friedrich
Gautier, Paul
Gay, Thomas
G.B. Bell and Howell
G.B. Equipments
G.B. Kalee
G.B. Kershaw
Gebrűder Fromme
Geneva Optical Co.
George Ltd., W.&J.
George and Becker, W.&J.
Gerhardt Optik GmbH
German Equatorial Mount
German Makers' Ordnance Codes for Optical Products
GeoMax
Gerrard, W.
Ghost Micrometer
Gieves Ltd., Gieves & Hawkes Ltd.
Gilbert & Gilkerson
Gilbert, John (I)
Gilbert, John (II)
Gilbert, John (III)
Gilbert & Son; Gilbert & Sons
Gilbert, William
Gilbert & Wright
Gilbert, Wright & Hooke
Gilbert, W.&T.
Gilkerson, James
Gilles, Alexandre François
Gillett and Sibert
Ginsberg, Aleksander
Giroux & Cie, Alphonse
Glan-Foucault Prism
Glan-Thompson Prism
Glass, Optical
Glass Perfection
Godfrey, Thomas
Goerz, Carl Paul
GOI
Goniometer
Gorizont; Horizon
Gosudarstvennyy Opticheskiy Institut (GOI)
Gosudarstvennyi Optiko-Mehanicheskiy Zavod (GOMZ)
Goodall, L. Odell
Goto Inc.
Gould, Charles
Gould, Charlotte Hyde
Gould, Henry
Gould & Porter
Gowllands Ltd.
Graflex
Graham, George
Graphic Telescope
Graphoscope; Graphostereoscope
Gravatt, William
Gray, John (I)
Gray, John (II)
Gray & Keen
Green, John
Greenkat
Greenough Binocular Microscope
Gregg, William T.
Gregorian Telescope
Gregory, Gilbert & Co.
Gregory, Gilbert & Wright
Gregory, Henry
Gregory, James
Gregory & Co., W.
Gregory & Wright
Grice, William Hawks
Griffin & George
Griffin & Sons, John J.
Griffin & Tatlock
Griffith, Ezra H.
Griffiths & Co. Ltd., Walter
Grocers, Worshipful Company of
Grubb, Sir Howard
Grubb, Sir Howard and Sons
Grubb Parsons
Grubb Telescope Company
Grubb, Thomas
Grunow, J.&W.
Guan Sheng Optical (GSO)
Guaranteed Lens Co.
Guinand, Aimé
Guinand, Henry
Guinand, Pierre Louis
Gundlach, Ernst
Gundlach-Manhattan Optical Co.
Gundlach Optical Co.
Gundlach Photo-Optical Co.
Gunner's Quadrant
Gunter’s Quadrant
Gurley, W.&L.E.
Gustav Heyde Mathematisch-Mechanisches Institut Optische Präzisions-Werkstätten
GX Microscopes (GT Vision)
Gyro-Theodolite

H

Haag-Streit
Hadley, John
Hadley's Quadrant
Hahn, A
Haking (Xinhui) Optical Ltd., W.
Halden, Joseph and Company
Hale, George Ellery
Halina
Hall and Brothers Ltd., A.H.
Hall Brothers
Hall, Chester Moor
Hall & Watts Ltd.
Hamblin Ltd., Theodore
Hapo
Hanimex
Hardin Optical Company
Hare, George
Hargreaves, Frederick J.
Harling, W.H.
Harris, Thomas
Harris & Son, Thomas
Harrisons Opticians
Harris, Philip
Harris, William
Hartnack, Edmund
Hartnack and Prazmowski
Harvey & Peak
Harvey, Reynolds and Co.
Hasselblad
Hauksbee, Francis
Haw and Reynolds
Hawke Sport Optics
Hawkins & Wale
Hawksley & Sons
Hearn & Harrison
Hearne, George
Hearne & Jackson
Hearson, Charles
Heath and Co.
Heath, Thomas (I)
Heath, Thomas (II)
Heath, William
Heath and Wing
Heliograph
Heliometer
Helios
Heliostat
Heliostate
Heliotrope
Heller & Brightly
Helmholtz, Hermann von
Hen, Hendrik
Henderson, Angus
Henry, Paul and Prosper
Hensoldt, Moritz
Heron, David
Heron & McGregor
Herring, Alika
Herschel Prism
Herschel Wedge
Herschel, William
Herschelian Telescope
Hertel & Reuss
Hexagon AB
Heyde Gustav
Hezzanith
H.H. & Son Ltd.
Hicks, James Joseph
Highley, Samuel
Hilger, Adam
Hilger Interferometer
Hilger & Watts
Hilkin
Hilkinson
Hill, Peter
Himmler, Karl Otto
Hindle, John Henry
Hindley, Henry
Hinds, David
Hinds, David Graham
Hino Kinzoku Sangyo Co.
Hino Optical Co.
Hitomi Optical Machine Co.
Hiyoshi Optical Company
Holcomb, Amasa
Holmes, J.K.M.
Holmes, Booth & Haydens
Holmes Brothers
Hooke, Benjamin
Hooke, Robert
Hooker, John Daggett
Horiguchi Optical Company
Horne & Thornthwaite
Horne, Thornthwaite and Wood
Hoskold's Transit Theodolite
Houghton-Butcher
Houghton, George
How, James
Howard, Charles P.
Howe, John
Howe, Joseph
Hoya
Hudson & Son
Huet et Cie
Huggins
Huggins, William
Hughes, Henry
Hughes and Son, Henry
Hughes, Joseph (I)
Hughes, Joseph (II)
Hummel Optical Co. Ltd.
Hunt of Cork
Hunter, R.F.
Hunter & Sands
Huntley, Robert
Hurlimann, A.
Husbands and Clarke
Husbands, Henry
Husbands and Sons
Husun
Husun Marine Distance Meter
Hutchinson, George
Huygens, Christian
Hyland Optical Technologies
Hy Score
Hysom, Jim
Hytel Optics

I

Ibn al-Haytham, Al-Hassan
ICA
ICAF
Iceland Spar
IG Farben AG
Ihagee Kamerawerk Steenbergen & Co.
Ilex Camera Works
Ilex Manufacturing Co.
Ilford
Iloca
Image Plane
Immersion Objective
Impersonal Prismatic Astrolabe
Imray and Son, J.
Ingénieur Chevallier
Institut d’Optique
Interference Colour Photography
Interferometer
Inverted Microscope
Iris de Paris
Irving & Sons, H.N.

J

Jackenkroll, A., Optische Anstalt GmbH
Jackson A.C.
Jackson, Joseph
Jaegers Optical Corporation, A.
Jägermeister
Jamin Refractometer
Jannsen, Zacharias
Japanese Manufacturers' Codes for Optical Products
JB codes
Jecker, François-Antoine
Jenoptik
Jessops
Jewel Lens
Jinghua Optical & Electronics Co. Ltd.
JIS
Jobin, Amédé
Joblot, Louis
Johannsen, Asmus
Jointed Microscope
Jones-Bird Telescope
Jones, Charles
Jones & Gray
Jones, Gray & Keen
Jones, John
Jones, Thomas
Jones, W.&S.
JTW Astronomy

K

Kahles, Karl
Kalee
Kaleidoscope
Kamera Werkstätten (KW)
Kaspereit, Otto Karl
Kazan Optical and Mechanical Plant (KOMZ)
Keary, P.J.
Keeler Ltd.
Keen, Robert John
Kellner, Carl
Kelvin, Bottomley and Baird
Kelvin and Hughes
Kelvin and James White Ltd.
Kenko Co. Ltd.; Kenko Tokina Co. Ltd.
Keohan, Thomas
Kepler, Johannes
Kepler Optik
Keplerian Telescope
Keratometer
Keratoscope
Kern & Co.
Kershaw, Abraham and Sons
Kershaw Optical Co.
Kershaw Projector Co. Ltd.
Kershaw-Soho Ltd.
Keuffel & Esser
Kharkov Machine-Building Plant (FED)
Kiev (КИЕВ)
Kinematograph
Kinetograph
Kinetoscope
King
King and Son, John
King, John (I)
King, John (II)
King and Coombs
King Optics
King and Son
King, Thomas Davies
Kino Precision Industries
Kinux
Kiron
Klein, W.
Kleine, C.B.
Klönne and Müller
Knight, George
Knight & Sons, George
Knox & Shain
Kolberg, Henryk
Kollmorgen
Kollsman Instrument Company, Inc.
KMZ
Kodak
Kodak-Pathé
Köhler, August
Köhler Illumination
KOMZ
Konica
Konica Minolta
König, Albert
Konus
Koristka, Franz
Kowa
Koyu Company Ltd.
Kozelský, František
Krasnogorskij Mechanicheskij Zavod (KMZ)
Krauss, E.
Krauss, G.A.
Kronos
Krüss, Andres
Kuhlmann, Franz
Kunming United Optics Corporation
Kürbi & Niggeloh
Kyocera
Kyowa Optical Co. Ltd.

L

L3 Brashear
L3 SSG
L3 Technologies
Laboratory Optical Co.
Lacour-Berthiot
Ladd, William
Lamier, Paris
Lancaster and Son, J.
Lane & Sons, J.L.
Langley Inclinometer
Lantern
Laser
Latham Brothers
Laurent, Léon
Lawley
Lawrence & Mayo
Leaf
Lealand, Peter H.
Lean's Miners' Theodolite
Leech (Rochester) Ltd.
Leedham & Robinson
Leica Heerbrugg AG
Leica Camera
Leica Geosystems
Leica Microsystems
Leicester Astronomical Centre Ltd.
Leiner and Bertram
Leitz
Lejeune & Perken
Lemaire
Lemardeley et Fils
Leningrad Optical Mechanical Association (LOMO)
Lennie Opticians
Lenoir, Etienne
Lenoir, Paul Etienne Marie
Lens
Lensball
Lensman Microscope
Lens Measure
Lenticular Stereoscope
Lerebours, Noël-Jean
Lerebours, Noël Marie Paymal
Lerebours & Secretan
Leupold
Level
Levi & Co., Joseph
Levi & Co., S.J.
Lichtenknecker Optics
Lieberkühn, Johann N.
Lieberkühn Mirror
Lieberman and Gortz
Liebig, Justus von
Lietz Company, The
Lilley & Son, Ltd., John
Limer
Linnell, Elijah
Linnell, George
Linnell, Joseph
Linnell, Robert
Lippershey, Hans
Lippmann, Gabriel
Lister, Joseph Jackson
Littrow
Littrow Quartz Spectrograph
Lizars, John
Lloyd’s Mirror Interferometer
Loewy, Maurice
Loft, Matthew
LOMO
London Stereoscopic Co. Ltd.
Long, James
Lonsdale Bros.
Lorenz Scientific Ltd.
Loupe Magnifier
Lowdon, George
Lucernal Microscope
Lucking & Co., James
Ludolph, W
Lumière
Lummer Brodhun photometer
Lummer and Gehrcke Interferometer
Lundin, Robert
Lundy, J.F.
Lunt
Lutz, Edouard
Lyle, James
Lynch, James
Lytkarino Optical Glass Factory (LZOS)

M

Mach-Zehnder Interferometer
Macrae, Henry
Magic Lantern
Magnetograph
Magnusson, O.
Mailhat, R.
Maison Bardou
Maison Chevallier
Maison de l’Ingénieur Chevallier
Maison Lerebours & Secretan
Maksutov Telescope
Maksutov-Cassegrain Telescope
Mamiya
Manent, Maurice
Mangin, Colonel Alphonse
Mangin Mirror
Manhattan Optical Company
Mann & Ayscough, James & James
Mann, James (I)
Mann, James (II)
Mann, John
Mantois, Edouard
Marey, Étienne-Jules
Marindin Rangefinder
Marine Instruments
Marion & Co.
Marion & Foulger
Marratt & Ellis
Marratt, John Symonds
Marratt & Short
Mars
Marsh, Rev. D.B.
Marshall, John
Martin, Adolphe Alexandre
Martin, Benjamin
Martin, Joshua Lover
Martz Jr., Edwin P.
Mason, John
Mason, Robert George
Mason, Thomas
Mathematical-Mechanical Institute Reichenbach, Utzschneider and Liebherr
Mawson & Swan
Mayflower
McAllister & Brother
McAllister, Thomas H.
McArthur Microscopes
McGregor, Duncan
McIntosh, Thomas
McIntosh, Dr. L.D.
Meade Instruments
Meagher, P.
Medial Telescope
Megameter
Meiji Techno Co. Ltd.
Mekometer
Meniscus Lens
Meopta
Meridian Circle
Meridian Instrument
Meridional Telescope
Merker, Ludwig
Merz, Georg
Merz, Jakob and Matthias
Merz, Georg & Sigmund
Merz and Mahler
Merz, Sigmund
Merz and Söhne
Metal
Metz Apertometer
Meyer & Co., Hugo
Meyerstein, Moritz
Michelson, Albert Abraham
Michelson’s Interferometer
Microfiche
Microfilm
Micrograph
Microphotograph
Micro Precision Products Ltd.
Microscope
Microspectroscope
Microtome
Midland Camera Co. Ltd.
Mignonne, La
Milbro Photographic
Miller and Adie
Miller Brothers
Miller, John
Milo
Minolta
Mirador
Mirand, Antoine and Jean
Miranda Camera Company
Mitscherlich goniometer
Mittelstrass, Gebr.
MIZAR Optical Japan
Mizar Tech Ltd.
M-Katera
Mogey, W.&D.
Mogey & Sons Inc., William
Moginie, William
Möller, Johann Diedrich
Molteni
Monolux
Moody Bell, William
Moonraker Telescopes
Moravian Instruments
Morgan, Francis
Morgan, John
Morley, W.H.; Morley & Cooper
Morrison, Richard
Motion Picture Image Reproduction
Mountain Transit Theodolite
MPP Photographic Products Ltd.
Mudge, John
Munro, R.W.
Mural Arc
Mural Circle
Mural Quadrant
Murnaghan Industries
Murray & Heath
Murray, Robert
Museum Microscope
Muybridge, Eadweard

N

Nachet, Camille Sébastien
Nachet et Fils
Nachet, Jean Alfred
Nachet's Prism
Nagel, Dr. August
Nagler, Al
Nairne, Edward
Nairne and Blunt
Nash-Kelvinator Corporation
Nasmyth, James
National Geographic
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
National Physical Laboratory (NPL)
Nedinsco
Negretti and Zambra
Neill, Robert
Nettel Camera-werke
Newbold & Bulford
Newman, Arthur S.
Newman & Guardia Ltd.
Newman, John
Newman & Simpson
Newman & Sinclair Ltd.
Newton & Co., H. (Liverpool)
Newton & Co. (London)
Newton and Wright
Newton, F.
Newton, H.C.
Newton NM1 Microscope
Newton, W.E.
Newton, W.E.&F.
Newton, Sir Isaac
Newtonian Telescope
Nickel
Nicol Prism
Nicol, William
Niépce, Joseph Nicéphore
Niépce de St Victor, Claude Félix Abel
Niezoldi & Krämer
Night Optics
Nihon Seiko Kenkyusho, Ltd.
Nikon
Nippon Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushikigaisha
Nishimura Co. Ltd.
Nissen, Jules
Nivoc
Nobert, Friedrich Adolph
Noctovist
Norman, John Thomas
Norrenberg Polariscope
Northrop Grumman Corporation
Nottingham Instruments Ltd.
Novak & Company, Kenneth
Novosibirsk Instrument-Making Plant (NPZ)
Numerical Aperture
Nye Optical Co.

O

Oberhäuser, Johann Georg
Oberwerk
Objective Lens
Obukhov Optical Works
Octant
OCT Scanner
Ocular
Ocular Instruments Inc.
Off-Axis
Officine Galileo
Ohara
Oil Immersion Objective
Okada Kōgaku
Oleorefractometer
Olivo, Angelo
Olympus
Omegon
Omnimeter
Ophthalmoscope
Ophthalmometer
Oppelt, Johann Balthasar
Optica b/c
Optical Axis
Optical Coherence Tomography
Optical Craftsmen, The
Optical Glass
Optical Hardware
Optical Surfaces
Optical Square
Optical Techniques Inc.
Optical Vision Ltd. (OVL)
Opticron
Optics - Feinmess Dresden VEB
Optigraph
Optique et Précision de Levallois (OPL)
Optikotechna
Optimus
Optische Fabrik M. Baader
Optisches Institut
Optisches Institut von A. Krüss
Optolyth
Optometer
Optron Laboratory
Ordnance Codes
Orion
Orion Optics UK
Orion Seiki Sangyō Y.K.
Orthoscope
Orthoscopic
Osborne
Osborne, Thomas P.G.
Ostara
Otoscope
Ottewill, Thomas
Otto Walter
Ottway & Co. Ltd., W.
Oxyhydrogen Microscope

P

Pacific Instruments
Paillard Bolex
Palar
Paludan, D.A.
Pancratic
Panoptikon
Parallactic Ladder Mount
Parallactic Telescope
Paraxial
Park, Henry
Parker and Co., A.G.
Parker Hale
Parkes and Son, James
Parkes and Sons, John
Parks Optical
Parra, Numa
Parra Mantois et Cie
Parsons, Sir Charles Algernon
Parsons Optical Glass Company
Parsons, William, third Earl of Rosse
Pastorelli, Francis John
Pastorelli, London
Pastorelli, Liverpool
Pastorelli & Rapkin
Pathé, Charles
Pathéscope
Paul, Robert William
Pellin, Philibért François
Pelorus
Pentacon
Pentaprism
Pentax (Pentax Corporation)
Periscope
Periscopic Lens
Periscopic Prism Company (PPCo)
Perken, Son and Rayment
Perkin Elmer
Perot, Jean-Baptiste Alfred
Perry, Charles
Perspective; Perspective Glass
Petitdidier, Octave Leon
Petit, L.
Petrograd Porcelain Works
Petzval, Josef Max
Phase Contrast Microscope
Phase One
Phelps & Gurley
Phénakistiscope
Phoneidoscope
Photochrom, Photochrome, Photochromy
Photograph
Photographic Film
Photographometer
Photographic Zenith Tube (PZT)
Photo Heliograph
Photometer
Photophone
Photoscope
Photo-Survey Camera
Photo-Theodolite
Pickart, Alexandre Auguste
Pignons SA
Pike, Benjamin
Pilkington
Pillischer
Pilot, Etienne
Pinhole Camera
Pistor, Carl Philipp Heinrich
Pistor & Martins
Pistor & Schieck
Pizzala
Placido’s Disc
Plath, Carl
Pleograph
Plössl, Gustáv Simon
Polam
Polar Clock
Polarex
Polarimeter
Polariscope
Polarization
Polaroid
Polar Scope
Polar Siderostat
Polemoscope
Polish Optical Industries (PZO)
Polygonoscope
Polyoptrum; Polyoptron
Ponder and Best
Porro, Ignazio
Porro Prism
Porst
Porter, Henry
Potter, John D.
Pouilly, J.
Pouzet, Gustav
Powell, Hugh
Powell & Lealand
Powell, Thomas Hugh
Praktica
Praktina
Praxinoscope
Precision Optical Co. Ltd.
Prentice, James
Prin, Georges
Prince, Abraham
Prinz Optics
Prior Scientific
Prior & Co. Ltd., W.R.
Prism
Prismatic Astrolabe
Prism Photometer
Pritchard, Andrew
Pritchard, Charles
Pritchard, Edward
Proctor Beilby & Co
Progress Optics
Projector
Prontor
Prospect; Prospective Glass; Prospect Glass
Prószyński, Kazimierz
Proteam
Pulfrich Refractometer
Pullin and Co., R.B.
Purma Cameras Ltd.
Purser and Brother, H.F.
Purus
Putois, Etienne Antoine
Putois, Marie
Pye & Co., W.G.
Pyrex
Pyser-SGI (Pyser Optics Ltd.)
PZO

Q

QHYCCD
Qioptiq
Quadrant
Quartz Spectrograph
Queen & Company, James W.
Queslin, Adélaïde Amanda
Queslin, Pierre Louis Amédée
Questar
Quintant

R

Radiguet & Massiot
Rainbow
Rajar
Ramsden Disc
Ramsden, Jesse
Rangefinder (Optical)
Rank, J. Arthur
Rapid Rentilinear Lens
RAS Thread
Raspail's Simple Chemical Microscope
Rathenow Optical Works
Ray & Co., J.W.
Rayleigh Criterion
Reed International Group
Reeve's Distance Finder
Reeves, John
Reeves, Richard
Reflecting Circle
Reflecting Microscope
Reflecting Telescope; Reflector
Reflection Grating
Reflex Mirror
Refracting Telescope; Refractor
Refractive Index
Refractometer
Regent
Reichenbach, Georg Friedrich von
Reichenbach, Utzschneider and Liebherr
Reichert, C., Optische Werke
Reid and Sigrist
Relay Lens
Repeating Circle
Repsold & Söhne, A.
Research Enterprises Ltd. (REL)
Revue; Revueflex
Reynaud, Charles-Émile
Reynolds and Branson
Reynolds & Wiggins
Richard, Félix-Max
Richard, Jules
Richards of Falmouth
Richardson, Adie & Co. Ltd.
Richardson, George
Richardson, Matthew
Richie's Photometer
Ricoh
Rider, Job
Rienks, S.J.
Rietzschel
Rifle-Scope
Riggs and Brother
Ringfoto
Ring Laser Gyroscope
Ritchey-Chrétien Telescope
Ritchey, George Willis
RMS Thread
Robbins, J.&C.
Roberts & Co., Austin
Robertson, William
Robinson & Barrow
Robinson & Sons, James
Robinson, John
Robinson, Thomas Charles
Rochette, Gaspard
Rochette Jeune
Rochette Père
Rodenstock
Roessler, Paul
Rollei
Ronchetti
Roof Pentaprism
Roof Prism
Ross, Andrew
Ross, Thomas; Ross & Co.
Ross Ltd., London
Ross-Ensign Ltd.
Ross Optics
Rotoscope
Rouch & Co., W.W.
Rowell, Thomas
Rowland Concave Diffraction Grating
Rowland, Henry Augustus
Rowley, John
Royal
Rubergall, Thomas
Ruhnke
Rumford's Photometer
Ruper
Russian and Soviet Makers' Marks
Rust, Ebenezer (I)
Rust, Ebenezer (II)
Rust, Joseph (I)
Rust, Richard
Rutherford, Lewis Morris
Rutherford's Prism
Ryland & Son Ltd., H.C.

S

Saegmuller, George N.
Saegmuller & Co., George N.
Sagnac Interferometer
Salanson & Co., H.
Salmoiraghi, Angelo
Salmoiraghi and Viganò
Salmon, William John
Salom & Co.
Salyut
Sanders & Co.
Sanders & Crowhurst
Sanderson, F.H.
Sands & Hunter
San Giorgio
Sankei Koki Seisakujo Inc.
Sard
Sartory Instruments
Sawyers
Scarlett, Edward (I)
Scarlett, Edward (II)
Scheffel, Mark
Schenk, Ulrich
Schieck, Friedrich Wilhelm
Schiefspiegler
Schmidt, Bernhardt
Schmidt Camera
Schmidt-Cassegrain Telescope
Schmidt-Pechan Prism
Schneider Dresden
Schneider Kreuznach
Schneider Creusot
Schott AG
Schott, Otto
Schrauer, Leopold
Schröder, Heinrich Ludwig Hugo
Schupmann, Ludwig
Science of Cambridge Ltd.
Science Tech
Scientific Instrument Manufacturers' Association of Great Britain (SIMA)
Scientific Optics Ltd.
Scioptic Ball
Scott, Benjamin
Seagull
Seben
Secrétan, Marc François Louis
Seeadler Optik
Seibert, Wilhelm and Heinrich
Seiko Scope
Seiwa Optical Company Ltd.
Self-Levelling Level
Sellew, Roland W.
Selligue
Selo Ltd.
Selsi
Selva, Domenico (I)
Selva, Domenico (II)
Selva, Guiseppe
Selva, Lorenzo
Semitecolo, Leonardo
Sextant
Sextant Rangefinder
Shanghai Camera Factory
Shanghai Seagull Digital Camera Co.
Sherwood and Co.
Shew & Co., J.F.
Shew, J.J.
Shimadzu
Short, James (I)
Short, James (II)
Short, Thomas
Showa Koki Seizou Co. Ltd.
Showa Optronics Company Ltd. (SOC)
Shuron Optical
Shuttlewood, Cliff
Shuttleworth, Henry Raynes
Siderostat
Sidle & Company, John W. (Acme Optical Works)
Sidle & Poalk
Sigma Corporation
Sigma Research
Silraft
Simmance-Abady Photometer
Simmons Optics
Simms, James (I)
Simms, James (II) and George
Simms, William (I)
Simms, William (II)
Simms, William (III) & (IV), and James (III) & (IV)
Sinclair & Co. Ltd., James A.
Sine Condition
Sisson, Jeremiah
Sisson, Jonathan
Skybolt
Skylight Telescopes
Sky-optic ball
Skywatcher
Slade, W.
Slit Lamp
SLR Camera
Smith & Beck
Smith, Beck & Beck
Smith, Caleb
Smith, Dwight Lyman
Smith, George
Smith, James (I)
Smith, James (II)
Smith, Jeppe
Smith, John (I)
Smith, John (II)
Smith, Joseph (I)
Smith, Joseph (II)
Smith, Robert
Smith & Sons, S. (England)
Smiths Industries
Smith's Quadrant
Società Scientifica Radio Brevetti Ducati (SSRD)
Société des Etablissements Gaumont
Société des Etablissements Krauss (SEK)
Société Genevoise
Société Industrielle d'Instruments de Précision
Société Optique et Précision de Levallois S.A. (OPL)
Société d'Optique et de Mécanique (SOM)
Société d'Optique, Précision, Electronique et Mécanique (SOPEM, Sopelem)
Soho Ltd.
Sokkia
Sokkisha
Solar Camera
Solar Microscope
Soleil, François
Soleil, Henri
Soleil, Jean Baptiste François
Soligor GmbH
Solomons, Samuel and Benjamin
SOM-Berthiot
Sony
Sorby, Henry Clifton
Southern Precision Instrument Company (SPI)
Spear, Richard
Spectacle Makers, Worshipful Company of
Spectra Geospatial
Spectrograph
Spectroheliograph
Spectrometer
Spectrophotometer
Spectroscope
Speculum
Spencer & Browning
Spencer, Browning & Co.
Spencer Browning & Rust
Spencer, Charles Achilles
Spencer and Eaton
Spencer, Herbert
Spencer, John
Spencer & Son, John
Spencer Lens Company
Spencer & Smith Optical Co.
Spencer, William (I)
Spencer, William (II)
Spherical Aberration
Sphero-cylindrical Lens
Spherometer
Spider; Spider Vane
Spina, Alessandro
Spindler & Hoyer
Spinoza, Benedict de
Spinthariscope
Split Image Telescope
Spotting Scope
Springer, Joshua
Springfield
Spyglass
Srb and Štys
Stackpole & Brother
Stadimeter
Staley & Co., A.E.
Staley, Shew & Co.
Stancliffe, John
Standard Optical Co.
Stanhope Lens (Microscope)
Stanley, William Ford
Starlight Xpress
Star-Liner Company
Statham, William Edward
STC
Steiner
Steinheil & Söhne
Stellar Interferometer
Stendicke, August
Stereopticon
Stereoscope
Sterrop, Avis
Sterrop, George
Sterrop, Jane
Sterrop, Mary
Sterrop, Mary & Son
Sterrop, Ralph
Sterrop, Thomas (I)
Sterrop, Thomas (II)
Sterrop & Yarwell
Steward, J.H.
Steward Telemeter
Stewart's Distance-Finder
Stiassnie, Maurice
Stoney, George Johnstone
Stoney Heliostat
Strathspey
Stroud, William
Stuart's Distance Meter
Sun Camera Co. Ltd.
Sunagor
Sunny Group Co. Ltd.
Super 8
Sutcliffe Self-Recording Keratometer
Swallow
Swan, Sir Joseph Wilson
Swann, Thomas
Swarovski Optik
Sweeney, Edward
Swift and Son, James
Swift Sport Optics
Symmetroscope
Synta Technology Corporation of Taiwan

T

Tacheometer
Tagliabue, Caesar
Tagliabue and Casella
Taisei Optical Equipment Manufacturing
TaiYuan Optical Instruments
Takahashi
Tal
Talbot & Eamer
Talbot, William Henry Fox
Tamaya Technics Inc.
Tamron Co. Ltd.
Tanzutsu
Tasco
Tavistock Theodolite
Taylor, Harold Dennis
Taylor, Wilfred
Taylor, Taylor and Hobson
Taylor, Thomas Smithies
Tectron Telescopes
Teinoscope
Teleconverter
Teledyne-Gurley
Teleiconograph
Teleidoscope
Telemax
Telemeter
Telephoto Lens
Telescope
Telescopics
Telespectroscope
Telestereoscope
Tele Vue
Telstar
Tento
Terada, Shintaro
Terrascan
Tetragonal Prism
Texereau, Jean
T.G. & Co.
Thales Optronics Ltd.
Theatograph
Theodolite
Thompson Prism
Thompson, Silvanus P.
Thomson, Elihu
Thomson, John Victor
Thomson, William
Thornoe’s Refractometer
Thornton Ltd., A.G.
Thornton-Pickard Manufacturing Co. Ltd.
Thorp's Diffraction Grating
Thorp’s Diffraction Spectroscope
Three Mirror Telescope
TI Asahi Co. Ltd.
Tilted Component Telescope
Tilting Level
Tinsley, Clayton R.
Tinsley Laboratories Inc.
Tintype
Tiyoda
TLR Camera
Tohyoh
Tokina Co. Ltd.
Tokyo Kogaku Kikai KK
Tokyo Optical Co. Ltd.
Tolles, Robert Bruce
Topcon Corporation
Toric Lens
Total Internal Reflection
Total Station
Towa, Japan
Transit
Transit Circle
Transit Instrument
Transit Level
Transit Telescope
Transit Theodolite
Tremel, Georg
Trimble Inc.
Triple Alliance
Triplet
Trochon, François
Troughton, Edward
Troughton, John (I)
Troughton, John (II)
Troughton, J.&E.
Troughton and Simms
True-Vue
TRY ME
Tulley, Charles
Tulley, Henry
Tulley & Sons, C.
Turnbull, J.M; Turnbull & Co.
Tuther, John Penn
Twyman, Frank

U

Ulrich
Ultra-Violet Glass Spectrograph
Underwood, E.&T.
Unicam Instruments
Union Optical Co. Ltd.
Uniscope
Uni-Scope Optical Systems Ltd.
United Kingdom Optical Company Ltd.
United Trading Co.
Unitor
Unitron
Universal Camera Corporation
University Optics Inc.
UQG Optics
Uranostat
Urban, Charles; Urban Bioscope
Usener, Charles F.
U.S. Naval Gun Factory Optical Shop Annex
Utzschneider, Joseph von
Utzschneider and Merz

V

Valley Microscope
Van Cort Instruments
Vanguard
Varley, Cornelius
Vasseur & Cie, A. le
Vaughan, C.B.
Vavilov State Optical Institute (GOI)
Veitch, James
Verascope
Verick, M. Constant
Vernier Reading Theodolite
Vernonscope & Co.
Vertical Illuminator
Vial, Jules
Vickers
Video Camera
Vidhya-Bhand
Viewfinder Camera
Viewmaster
Viganò, Angelo
Vignette
Vignetting
Vignetter
Viking Optical Ltd.
Vion
Viper
Viper Optics
Visiometer
Vision Engineering Ltd.
Vista Outdoor Inc.
Vitascope
Vivascope
Vivitar
Vixen Co. Ltd.
Voigt & Hochgesang
Voigtländer
Volk Optical Ltd.
Vortex Optics

W

Waechter, Paul
Wale, George
Wale & Morrison
Wales, William
Wall, John
Warner & Swasey Co.
Warsaw Cine-technical Works
Warsaw Photo-Optical Works (WZFO)
Warwick Bioscope
Warwick Trading Company
Wasserlein, Rudolph
Water Immersion Objective
Watkin Clinometer
Watkin Depression Rangefinder
Watkin, Major H.S.
Watkin Mekometer
Watkins, Francis (I)
Watkins, Francis (II)
Watkins & Hill
Watkins, Jeremiah & Walter
Watkins & Smith
Watson-Baker, Wilfred Ernest
Watson-Baker Co. Ltd.
Watson Barnet
Watson Brothers
Watson-Conrady
Watson, Thomas W.
Watson, William (I)
Watson & Sons Ltd, W.
Watson & Sons, W., Melbourne
Watt, James
Watts & Son, E.R.
Watts, James
Waugh, James
Waymouth-Cooke Rangefinder
Waymouth-Ross Sextant Rangefinder
Wedderburn, Thomas
Weeden, Daniel
Weeden, E.
Weeden, Michael
Weeden, William John
Weems & Plath
Weiss, Hans Optik
Welch Allyn
Welta
Werkstätten für Präzisions Mechanik und Optik
West, Charles Robert
West, Francis
West, Francis L.
Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Co.
Wheatstone, Sir Charles
Wheatstone's Photometer
Wheeler, Edmund
White, James
Whitford, Samuel
Whitford, Thomas
Whyte, James (I)
Whyte, James (II)
Whyte, Thomson & Co.
Widdowson, J.
Wiesel, Johann
Wild Heerbrugg
Wild, Heinrich
Wild Leitz AG Group
Wildey, Henry
Willard & Co., J.W.
William Optics
Willson & Dixey
Willson, George
Willstrop, Dr. Roderick V.
Wilson, George
Wing, Tycho
Winkel, Rudolf
Winkel-Zeiss
Winspear, John Emanuel
Winter & Son, T.B.
Wirgin
With, George Henry
Witherspoon, Earl
Wöhler, Dr. F.A.
Wollaston, Francis
Wollaston, William Hyde
Wollaston Doublet
Wollaston Prism
Wood, Edward George
Wood, George Smart
Wooley, Sons & Co. Ltd., James
Worthington & Allan
Worthington, Nathaniel
Wray Optical Works Ltd.
Wright, Gabriel
Wright, John
Wright, Lewis
Wright, Russel S.
Wright, Thomas (I)
Wright, Thomas (II)
Würdemann, William
Wye-Level
WZFO

X

X-Ray Optics

Y

Yamamoto Seisakusyo
Yarwell, John
Yawman & Erbe
Yashica
Yeates & Son
Yeates, Andrew
Yeates, George
Yeates, Samuel
Y Level
YOSCO
Youle, William
Young & Sons
Young, Thomas
Young, William J.
Yukon Advanced Optics Worldwide

Z

Zagorsk Optical and Mechanical Plant (ZOMZ)
Zeiss, Carl
Zeiss Ikon
Zenit
Zenith
Zenith Sector
Zenith Telescope
Zennox
Zenobia Kōgaku
Zentmayer, Joseph
Zoetrope
Zhumell
ZOMZ
Zoogyriscope, Zoogyroscope
Zoom Lens
Zoöpraxiscope (Zoogyroscope)
Zorki
Zschokke, Paul
ZWO

Glossary and Abbreviations
Glossary
Abbreviations

Appendix I: Barr & Stroud Binoculars
Galilean Binoculars
Porro Prism Binoculars
6x Models
Two CF5 Models
7x Models
8x Models
10x Models
12x Models
15x Models
Opera Glasses
Serial Numbers
Binoculars by OVL

Appendix II: Eyepieces
Overview
Telescope Eyepieces
Microscope Eyepieces
Binocular Eyepieces
Eyepiece Designs

Appendix III: German Wartime Makers' Ordnance Codes for Optical Products

Appendix IV: Japanese Symbols and Codes for Optical Products
Makers' Marks
JB codes

Appendix V: Russian and Soviet Makers' Marks
A Note on Soviet Era Marks
Makers' Marks

Appendix VI: Optical Glass
Properties of Optical Glass
Types of Optical Glass
Crown Glass
Flint Glass
Optical Coatings
Optical Glass Makers
Bonding Optical Glasses

Appendix VII: Spencer, Browning & Rust

References
Bibiliography and references


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